A tensile testing machine is a machine that is used to test the tensile strength and the compressive strength of the material. This testing is also known as tension testing. In this test, a sample is subjected to a controlled tension until it gets fails. Basically, this testing is used to calculate the suitability of the material for specific construction applications to ensure the quality. There are some properties which are absolutely measured by the tensile test and these properties are given below:
- Ultimate tensile strength
- Breaking strength
- Maximum elongation
- Reduction in area
- Young’s modulus
- Poison’s ratio
- Yield strength
- Strain hardening
Above are some properties which are measured by tensile testing. Some materials use biaxial tensile testing and some material use uniaxial tensile testing. From these two, uniaxial tensile testing is very common which is used to obtain the mechanical characteristics of isotropic materials. Now let’s talk about the purpose of tensile testing. Tensile testing has various purposes. Some of them are given below:
- It selects a material for an application.
- It predicts how a material will perform in use.
- For technical communication, it provides the basis.
- It demonstrates the utility of a proposed patent.
- In the legal proceeding, it provides the evidence.
- For the scientific engineering and other quality assurance functions, it provides the standard data.
In tensile testing, the force is applied to the opposite end of the specimen and then pulled outward until the metal breaks to calculate the stress, stain, yield deformation and other properties. This force is applied with the help of the tensile machine at a uniform fixed rate. The testing machine may be electrochemical or may be hydraulic. Tensile testing is the important part of designing and the quality control to ensure the safety and integrity of the product. Now let’s talk about some key features of tensile testing which includes:
- Extension and force
- Accurately controlled speed
- The ability to hold an extension and load
- Use of appropriate grips and fixtures.
There are more features of tensile testing but are not mentioned above in the list. Now come to the applications of the tensile testing machine:
- Automotive industry:
It includes tensile testing of interior and exterior fittings such as door and window seals carpets, handles, mirrors etc.
- Electrical and electronics industry:
It includes connector withdrawal force, PCB material tensile strength etc.
- Safety, health, fitness, and leisure industry:
It includes tensile testing of safety support netting, elastic properties of racquet string etc.
- Medical applications and devices industry:
It includes tensile strength and elongation at break of medical tubing, joint strength of IV connector fittings, joint strength and material elongation of respiratory masks etc.
- Package and packaging material industry:
It includes the elongation of plastic packaging material etc.
- Pharmaceutical products and packaging industry:
It includes pulling off a force of phial and capsule caps etc.
- Plastics, rubber and elastomers industry:
It includes an assessment of material tensile properties etc.
So above are some applications of tensile testing and the machine used to measure the tensile testing is known as a tensile testing machine.